Presidential elections were held in Rwanda on 4 August 2017. The incumbent President, Paul Kagame, was re-elected with an estimated 98% of the vote. 

Kagame was the last choice of Global Voters, however, with just 10% of the international vote. The surprise winner was Green candidate Frank Habineza, who received 71% of the Global Vote, compared to just 0.45% in the official election. 

Only 3% abstained, suggesting a high level of certainty amongst Global Voters on this occasion. 


With our sincere thanks to Marie Lamensch of the Montreal Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies for her invaluable help in preparing the candidate profiles.